The term ‘additional funds needed (afn)’ is generally defined as follows: a. the amount of internally generated cash in a given year

The term “additional funds needed (afn)” is generally defined as follows: a. the amount of internally generated cash in a given year minus the amount of cash needed to acquire the new assets needed to support growth. b. the amount of assets required per dollar of sales. c. a forecasting approach in which the forecasted percentage of sales for each balance sheet account is held constant. d. funds that a firm must raise externally from non-spontaneous sources, i. e., by borrowing or by selling new stock, to support operations. e. funds that are obtained automatically from routine business transactions.

Option D                     Explanation: In simple words, additional funds refers to the funds that a company needs for financing a specific project or other such purposes. These funds are usually procured when there are no internal funds left in the company like retained earnings etc. Thus, these funds are procured from external sources like issuing debt securities or by offering additional equity etc.

Leadership Explanation: A leadership team is usually a group of experienced individuals who guide and lead a company and are devoted to working together to attend to the business objective for which they hold themselves jointly responsible. They are also responsible for constructing a product, managing a business and identifying and settling strategic problems. They are usually seen as leaders of leaders whereby they have to establish standards and prioritize important leadership activities that regulate how they act with each other.

The answer is given below Explanation: A. Reading the chapter before attending a university lecture. This resembles a project because it has an objective as we are informed that they are reading the chapter before going for lectures. It is also an ongoing business routine because the chapters have to be read before the lectures so as to be prepared. B. Taking the bus to work each day. For B, it can also be said to be project as there is a beginning and also an ending. B could is a routine activity because it is done daily, and also it is vital for one to get to work everyday. C. Piloting an aircraft between Vancouver and Fiji. For C, it can also be said to be project as there is a beginning and also an ending. Also, C could is a project because it has a specific objective as Vancouver and Fiji csn both be considered to be specific locations, thereby making this flight a specific objective. The piloting activity here is routine and is also done daily. D. Teaching a course for the first time; teaching the same course every semester. It is a project because it is a situation with a definite beginning and also has an end. Teaching the same course for every semester would be routine because it becomes an ongoing cycle, amd therefore the same task will be repeated.

A. close by presenting your main idea Explanation: A routine business request is done to persuade the readers subjected to changes in the changes in the readers to viewpoint hence the message should be clear and concise, and the reader thus should know the exact point, which may include the service updates, dispatch lists, the bug reports, and the contract terms.

a. Ordinary negligence b. The statements were used for routine business purposes c. Reasonably forseeable third parties d. Third parties were recipients of the financial statements Explanation: Expansive liablity indicates that a third party is criminally liable for a crime that another person has committed if he/she conspires with the criminal on purpose. It became an important element of the law in 1983 with the case of Rosenblum, in which New Jersey’s Court completely disregarded Ultramare and claimed that auditors could be legally responsible for logically predictable negligence.

Answer 6

ast-moving consumers goods are nondurable products that sell quickly at relatively low cost. FMCGs have low profit margins, but they account for more than half of all consumer spending. Examples of FMDBs include milk, gum, fruit and vegetables, toilet paper, soda, beer, and over-the-counter drugs like aspirin. Explanation

Answer 7

d. a letter to a customer denying a request for credit. Explanation: Routine messages are part of a business’ daily operations; It communicates the what, who, where and when elements of operations. They are usually  simple and positive requests for information or action by one person to another, daily meeting with coworkers, new updates and  instructions as well as replies to customers. Among the choices given, a letter to a customer denying a request for credit is not part of it.

d. requests. Explanation: Based on the scenario being described within the question it can be said that such messages are known as requests. These are technically messages from one member of a business to another member in order to ask for a certain good, service, or action to be taken by the second member. Such as attending a meeting or assigning an assignment.

D. Requests Explanation: Request simply means asking, soliciting or expressing ones desire for something. Teams of a business organzation can coordinate their activities through request. Such request could be organzation of meetings to discuss important issues, forwarding of emails to each other to complete a transaction. Customers who intend to buy a product can make a request to the seller stating the quantity of product to be bought, size, color, flavors, mode of delivery and delivery date. Colleagues can also make a request to each other either for a business meeting or for a friendly meeting. Request is basically asking or demanding for something.


Explanation: The court decision in Rosenblum was made regarding the situation where it was necessary to know whether accountants should take full responsibility for their negligence in financial statement audits, or whether third parties should be held responsible as well. Based on this, the court ruling has established a standard of legal liability for third parties when each of the following elements is proven:
Ordinary negligence
Reasonably forseeable third parties
Third parties were recipients of the financial statements
The statements were used for routine business purposes

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