a. Use the observed genotype frequencies from the day 7 data to

calculate the frequencies of the CG allele (p) and CY allele (q).

(Remember that the frequency of an allele in a gene pool is the

number of copies of that allele divided by the total number of

copies of all alleles at that locus. b. Next use Hardy Weinberg equation (p^2+2pg+q^2=1) to calculate

expected frequencies of genotypes CGCG, CGCY, CYCY for a population

in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium. c. Calculate observed frequencies of genotypes CGCG, CGCY, CYCY

at day 7. (Observed frequency of a genotype in a gene pool is the

number of individuals with that genotype divided by total number of

individuals). Compare these frequencies to the expected frequencies

calculated in step 2. Is the seedling population in Hardy Weinberg

equilibrium at day 7, or is evolution occurring? Explain reasoning

and identify which genotypes appear to be selected for or

against. d. Calculate the observed frequencies of genotypes CGCG, CGCY,

and CYCY at day 21. Compare frequencies to expected frequencies

calculated in step b and observed frequencies at day 7. Is seedling

population in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium at day 21 or is evolution

occurring? Explain reasoning and identify which genotypes appear to

be selected for or against. e. Homozygous CYCY individuals cannot produce chlorophyll. The

ability to photosynthesize becomes more critical as seedlings age

and begin to exhaust the supply of food stored in seed from which

they emerged. Develop a hypothesis that explains data for days 7

and 21. Based on this hypothesis predict how frequencies of CG and

CY alleles will change beyond day 21. Number of Seedlings Green Green-yellow Yellow Time (days) (C°C) (C C) 49 47 (CC Total 216 173 56 20 21 106

a) Each individual has two alleles, so the

total number of alleles at day 7 is 216 × 2 = 432. To calculate the

frequency of the CG allele, here each of the 49 individuals of

genotype CGCG has two CG alleles, and each of the 111 individuals

of genotype CGCY has one CG allele. The 56 individuals of genotype

CYCY have zero CG alleles. Thus, the frequency of the CG allele (p)

is

p=(2×49)+(1×111)+(0×56)432=0.48

You can use the same procedure that you used to calculate p to

calculate q. However, an easier way to calculate q is to remember

that p + q = 1. Since you know that p = 0.484, you can calculate

that q = 1 – p = 0.516.

b) The expected frequency of

genotype CGCG is p 2 = 0.484 × 0.484 = 0.234.

The expected frequency of genotype CGCY is 2pq = 2 × 0.484 × 0.516

= 0.499.

The expected frequency of genotype CYCY is q 2 = 0.516 × 0.516 =

0.266

c) The observed frequency of

genotype CGCG is 49÷216 = 0.227.

The observed frequency of genotype CGCY is 111÷216 = 0.514.

The observed frequency of genotype CYCY is 56÷216 = 0.259

The seedling population is in equilibrium at Day 7. The expected

and observed genotypic frequencies for each seedling are similar.

At Day 7, there is no particular allele that is being selected for

or against.

d) The observed frequency of

genotype CGCG is 47÷173 = 0.272.

The observed frequency of genotype CGCY is 106÷173 = 0.613.

The observed frequency of genotype CYCY is 20÷173 = 0.116.

The data suggests that the seedling population is evolving at

Day 21. The allele frequencies have changed from Day 7 to Day 21.

The C Y C Y genotype is being selected against and the C G C Y is

being selected for.

e) The C Y C Y do not produce

chlorophyll. As the plant begins to grow and develop, it cannot

photosynthesize due to the lack of chlorophyll pigment. The plant

is therefore unable to produce glucose for energy. Initially the

plant is relying on stored sugar for growth and develop, but

between Day 7 and Day 21 the plant begins to suffer from a lack of

energy and as a result, the number of surviving plants each day

decreases over time. Beyond Day 21, one would expect to see further

increase of the CG allele (selected for), and a decrease in the CY

allele (selected against)

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