The correct answer is Option c. Explanation: pH is the measure of acidity of the solution. It is known as power of hydrogen. It is measured in a scale from 0 to 14. The solutions having pH from 0.1 to 6.9 is known as acidic solution, the solution having a pH of 7.1 to 14 is known as basic solution. The solution having pH 7 is known as neutral solution. Nitric acid is a strong acid because it completely dissociates into its respective ions. The pH of this solution is very low. Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) is a strong base because it completely dissociates into its respective ions. The pH of this solution is very high. When a solution of low pH reacts with a solution of high pH, it results in the solution having a neutral pH which is 7. Hence, the correct answer is option c.
b. At the equivalence point of the titration of a weak base with strong acid. Explanation: Equivalence point is the point in a chemical reaction at which chemically equivalent quantities of acid and base have been mixed. From the diagram below; If we look at the titration between a strong base and a weak acid., the titration curve reflects that the strength of the corresponding acid and base, showing the pH change during titration. The titration curve demonstrating the pH change during the titration of the strong base with a weak acid shows that; At the beginning, the pH changes very slowly and gradually from a strong acidic medium. This indicates the formation of a buffer system of a weak acidic medium as the titration approaches the equivalence point.
At the equivalence point of the titration of a weak base with strong acid, we can see clearly that the weak acid only is present. After the equivalence point and beyond, the titration curve is Basic.
A. Strong Acid vs. Strong Base
At strong acid-strong base titration the typical equivalence point occur at a pH of 7. Explanation: At strong acid-strong base titration, the typical equivalence point occurs at a pH of 7, because most of the conjugate base of a strong acids and the conjugate acid of a strong bases don’t hydrolyze. But in the cases, the strong acids produce anions (conjugate base) that could react with water producing hydroxides and raising the pH of the equivalence point. ⇄ Evenly, a strong base cold produces cations (conjugate acid) that react with water producing protons and decreasing the pH of the equivalence point. ⇄
Equivalence point in an acid base titration is the point when there are equal moles of acid and base in the solution. The pH at the equivalence point of a strong acid and a strong base will be 7 as the solution will be neutral. The conjugate acid and the conjugate base of a strong base and strong acid will be neutral. The pH at the equivalence point of a titration of weak acid and a strong base will be slightly basic as the conjugate base of the weak acid formed in the titration will be basic. The pH at the equivalence point of a titration of strong acid and a weak base will be slightly acidic because the conjugate acid of the weak base is slightly acidic. The pH at the equivalence point of the titration of a weak acid and a weak base is 7. But the pH changes are not sharp as both the acid and base are weak. Therefore, the correct answer is B: Strong acid versus weak base
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