Is cellular respiration endergonic or exergonic

6. Is cellular respiration endergonic or exergonic? 7. How many
ATP does 1 glucose yield in cellular respiration? 8. What percent
of the energy in glucose will be found in the ATP made from that
glucose? 9. NAD+ and FAD are coenzymes that function as electron
carriers. How many electrons and H+ do each carry? 10. List the
four phases of cellular respiration. 11. In _____________, enzymes
rearrange a six-carbon molecule of glucose into two pyruvate
molecules. 12. How many carbons does pyruvate contain? 13.
Glycolysis occurs in the _____________ of the cell. 14. Is
glycolysis aerobic or anaerobic? 15. How many ATP does 1 glucose
yield in fermentation? 16. Define substrate-level phosphorylation.
17. In the energy-investment step, how many ATP are used? 18. In
the energy-harvesting step, how many ATP are gained? NADH? 19. If
oxygen is not available, what happens to pyruvate? 20. In animal
cells, what is the end product of fermentation? 21. In yeast cells,
what is the end product of fermentation? 22. Give an example of a
useful product from fermentation by bacteria. 23. Give an example
of a useful product from fermentation by yeast. 24. Define oxygen
debt. 25. How is fermentation in muscle cells beneficial? 26. Which
one is more efficient—fermentation or cellular respiration?
Explain. 27. In cellular respiration, the second stage is called
the __________________, and it takes place in the ______________ of
the cell. 28. What gas is given off in the preparatory reaction?
29. How many NADH are formed? ATP? 30. Draw a mitochondrion showing
inner and outer membranes, cristae, matrix and intermembrane space.
31. The third stage is called ____________________________ and
occurs in the _________________ of the mitochondria. 32. How many
NADH & FADH2 are formed in the Citric Acid Cycle (aka Kreb’s
Cycle)? 33. Why is it named Kreb’s Cycle? 34. How many ATP are made
by substrate-level phosphorylation in the Citric Acid Cycle? 35.
Where do the electrons go when they’re donated by the coenzymes?
36. Where is the electron transport chain located in eukaryotes? In
aerobic prokaryotes? 37. What element is the final acceptor of the
eˉ from the electron transfer chain? 38. How many ATP are generated
from the electrons donated by NADH? FADH2? 39. What happens to NADH
and FADH2 after they’ve donated their electrons to the ETC? 40.
What happens to the H+ carried by NADH and FADH2? 41. The dark meat
of a chicken contains more of what organelle? What does this mean?
42. Fill in the following table of end products for each stage:
Glycolysis ATP NADH FADH2 Preparatory Reaction ATP NADH FADH2
Citric Acid Cycle ATP NADH FADH2 Electron Transport Chain ATP NADH
FADH2 43. Define catabolism. 44. Define anabolism. 45. List three
similarities between chloroplasts and mitochondria. 46. Can your
body use protein as energy? 47. Why are there no anaerobic
elephants?

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6. Cellular respiration releases energy. So it is an
exergonic reaction.
7. 1 Glucose molecule on complete oxidation produces 38 ATPs. 2
ATPs are initialy used to start the process of Glycolysis. So
net gain of ATPs in oxidation of 1 molecule of glucose is
36 ATP. Total production is 38 ATP.
10. Cellular respiration is carried out to obtain energy from by
oxidising the molecules like carbohydrates and fats.
Cellular respiration takes place in 4 stages. (Taking
Carbohydrate as an example)
First stage is glycolysis in which 1 glucose molecule is broken
down to 2 molecules of pyruvate.
Second stage is oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl
co enzyme A.
Third stage is the citric acid cycle in which acetyl co enzyme A
is totally broken down to water and CO2
Fourth stage is the electron transport chain in which ATP is
generated from the reducing equivalents that are formed during the
first 3 stages.
11. In Glycolysis, enzymes rearrange a
six-carbon molecule of glucose into two pyruvate molecules.
12. In glycolysis we can see that 1 molecule of glucose is
directly broken down (without any additions) to 2 molecules of
pyruvate. Form this we can say that pryruvate is a 3 carbon
compound.
13. The enzymes required for glycolysis are present in the
cytoplasm of the cell. So, glycolysis occurs in the
Cytoplasm of the cell.
14. Glycolysis is common pathway both for aerobic as well as
anaerobic breakdown of glucose. In aerobic respiration it ends with
pyruvate, in anaerobic respiration it ends with lactate.
15. In fermentation glucose is anaerobically broken down to
Ethanol and CO2. Glucose first splits into 2 molecules of pyruvate
and then pyruvate is converted to ethanol. As the yield of ATP in
glycolysis is 2 the yield of fermentation alos will be 2 ATPs only
as no ATPs are produced in the conversion of pyruvate to
ethanol.
It yields only 2 ATPs.

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