Each of the structures for CIOCI, NCOH, and CINO has atoms connected in the order given in their formulas. Identify the type of hybridization for the central atom in each compound. Write the appropriate items to their respective bins.
(a) The lewis structure for methylisocyanate is in the attached. (b) The carbonyl carbon have an sp² hybridization (c) The nitrogen have an sp² hybridization? Explanation: (a) The lewis structure for methylisocyanate has the nitrogen with one lone pair and the oxygen with two lone pairs. (b) The carbonyl carbon form double bond with the oxygen causing to form three hybrid orbitals sp². The Nitrogen also forms a double bond with the carbon having an sp² hybridization too.
D.) sp² and sp³ Explanation: Acetic acid CH₃COOH H3Csp³ C(O)OHsp²
Option d. Explanation: Ketones contain a carbonyl groups as a functional group, which is a carbon bonded to oxygen with a double bond. In a ketone, the carbon is always bonded to two carbon atoms: R-C(=O)-R’ The carbon in the carbonyl group has a hybridization sp2 (3 hybrid orbitals with an unhybridized p orbital), where two of the orbitals form sigma (σ) bonds with the other two carbons (R-C-R’) and the other hybrid orbital form a sigma bond with the oxygen (C-O). The unhybridized p orbital on the carbon atom is used to form a pi (π) bond with the oxygen, thus forming the double bond (C=O). The bond of a carbonyl group is polar, because of the difference of the electronegativity between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom. Hence, from all of the above we can discard the option a, (the carbonyl groups exhibits sp2 hybridization), the option b (carbon-oxygen bond is a bond polar) and the option c (the group must always be in the middle of a carbon chain, the groups that are always in the end, are a aldehyde groups). Therefore, the correct option is d, the functional group of this type of compound must always be in the middle of a carbon chain. I hope it helps you!
see explanation Explanation: If we look at the structures of each of the compounds we can be able to deduce the accurate hybridization of each of the atoms listed. Looking at ClNO – we can see that the nitrogen atom is linked to oxygen by a double bond and linked to chlorine by a single bond retaining a lone pair on nitrogen. Hence the nitrogen is in sp2 hybridized state. For ClOCl, the compound has a sp3 hybridized oxygen atom linked to two chlorine atoms as expected retaining two lone pairs on oxygen. For NCOH, the carbon atom is doubly bonded to oxygen hence it is sp2 hybridized.
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